The Damascus Agreement 1985 (The Trio-Party Agreement)
THE SYRIAN SPONSORED PEACE AGREEMENT FOR LEBANON SIGNED IN DAMASCUS ON DECEMBER 28, 1985
signed by Mr. N. Berri, Mr. E. Hobeika, Mr. W. Joumblatt
and witnessed by the Vice-President of Syria Mr. A.
Amid the tragic,
extraordinary circumstances that have been afflicting Lebanon, the
conferees have drawn up a national solution based on our people's
aspirations towards liberating the land from the Israeli
occupation, restoring security and peace to the homeland, and
establishing a sound, democratic regime by upholding justice and
equality, both politically and socially, and realizing the
Lebanese people's ambitions in all fields. this solution requires
a comprehensive national commitment and pan-Arab strength
represented in implementing special relations with fraternal
Syria, which did not and will never spare any effort, under
President struggler Hafez El-Asad's leadership, to deliver Lebanon
and protect its independence, unity, and Arab affiliation and to
lead it toward a democratic solution for its various struggles.
Chapter 1: General
Lebanon is an independent, free, and sovereign state in terms of
its territory, people, and institutions within its boundaries
outlined in the Lebanese Constitution that are internationally
recognized. It is of Arab affiliation and identity; an active,
founding member of the Arab League; and it is committed to the
various Arab League charters. The state embodies these principles
in various fields and areas without exception. Lebanon is also a
member of the United Nations and is committed to the UN charter.
Absolute adherence to Lebanon's unity. All partition plans, all
forms of discrimination, and all proposals of political
decentralization such as federations, cantons, and
decentralization in security and development are rejected. this
position makes inevitable the imposition of personal safety and
settlement in any Lebanese site in any form and regardless of the
period of this settlement.
System: Lebanon is democratic, parliamentary republic established
on the basis of respect for public freedoms, particularly the
freedom of opinion and creed. It is also based on the principles
of separation of powers and social justice and equality of duties
and rights of all citizens, without any discrimination or
preference, within a free economic system based on comprehensive
scientific planning of various resources, needs and activities in
all areas. It is a country of human dignity and cultural
- Continuing the
escalation of resistance to liberate Lebanon from the Israeli
occupation, liquidate its direct as well as indirect presence,
reject all sorts of security arrangements and their suspect
tools, and thwart any local tool that is tied or dealing with
- Providing all
resources and pooling all official efforts to back the
national resistance in the South in terms of manpower and
funds, in its capacity as the main base the process of
liberation and the correct bases unifying Lebanon.
- Supporting the
firmness and steadfastness of the southern Lebanese citizen on
his land by providing human, material, and economic means of
- Working to
implement Resolution 425 and all UN Security Council
resolutions pertaining to comprehensively removing the Israeli
occupation and rejecting all Israeli conditions and
- Adhering to the
armistice agreement signed on 23 March 1949.
Chapter II: The
Principles of the Political System.
strengthen the spirit of national growth and democratic practice
require replacement of the current sectarian formula with a
national one that can guarantee the people's participation and
representation in a political authority capable of expressing the
people's aspiration and ambitions on the national level and on the
basis of freedom, social justice, equality, equal opportunities,
development, and security. Hence, it was agreed that the building
of Lebanon's future and the establishment of a modern, developed
state is free from legacy of the past necessitate the cancellation
of the sectarian system. As a result, a new constitution will be
drafted on the basis of reinforcing the homeland's unity,
independence, Arab affiliation, and democratic system, as well as
a full equality among the citizens. This constitution, which will
be drafted within one year at the most, will include the following
basic principles provisions:
- The Lebanese
system is republican, democratic, and parliamentary.
- The Lebanese are
the source of authorities and will practice their national
supremacy through constitutional institutions as outlined in
the future constitution.
- The Lebanese are
equal before the law and enjoy equal civil, political, and
social rights and assume duties without discrimination.
- Regarding the
assumption of public positions and posts, no Lebanese has any
special privileges apart from his qualifications within the
- Personal freedom
shall be safeguarded and protected by the law and the freedom
of belief shall be protected. In this regard, stress is put on
Article 9 of the current constitution, as well as on public
freedoms regarding opinion, expression, education, parties,
societies. residence, labor, election, gatherings,
possessions, and trade union work. All these should take place
within the limit of ;law on a par with democratic countries.
- The economic
system shall be considered as free, organized, and capable of
guaranteeing individual initiative so long as it does not
conflict with the general order and public interest. This
system is based on a comprehensive scientific development of
various energies, needs, and activities in all areas. It is
also based on a long term development plan, considering
Lebanon's unity an indivisible unit.
- Social justice
shall prevail; social cooperation shall be considered a
national obligation; national education shall be the citizen's
right and duty. Compulsory education shall be provided for all
citizens through the end of intermediary course.
- A new election
law will be drafted to secure the broadest and best
representation of a national basis and to consider each
province as one electorate in order to safeguard national
unity and to express the will to coexist. All citizens-men and
women-have the right to vote when they become 18 years old in
accordance with conditions defined by the constitution.
- A senate will be
established to assume, together with the chamber of deputies,
legislative powers regarding fateful issues: amending the
constitution, war and peace, international treaties and
agreements, factional civil status, the citizenship law, the
- the new
government will immediately form a preparatory committee to
draft the new country's constitution in preparation of
The Stage of Moving
toward Complete Non-Sectarianism:
- Moving from the
sectarian formula to another formula that guarantees national
cohesion under the canopy of the democratic. parliamentary,
republican system involves a transitional and gradual stage
toward complete non-sectarianism. At this stage, reforms and
measures of a constitutional, systematic, and legal nature
mentioned in this document will be adopted in accordance with
A. A new
government will be formed immediately. The beginning of the
transitional stage will be the date this government is formed.
B. The stage of
ending the state of war in Lebanon will be no more than one year
beginning with the date of forming the new government in
accordance with what is stated in Chapter V of this agreement.
C. the present
Chamber of Deputies will be entrenched and expanded after
forming the new government by appointing new deputies in
accordance with the principles of equal sharing between Muslims
and Christians and equality among the three greater sects, and
on the basis of numbers determined by this agreement. Within the
period of one year at the most, all legal and constitutional
texts relating to implementing the transitional reforms
mentioned in this document will be applied.
transitional stage will end when the Chamber of Deputies makes a
decision to determine the beginning of the date for working for
a total cancellation of sectarianism in a accordance with the
restoration of normal situation in the country, the government
will call for electing a new Chamber of Deputies on the basis of
a new electoral law in accordance with the principles mentioned
in the agreement.
b. During the
second half of the term of the first elected Chamber of
Deputies, the government will propose a plan to determine the
date of the beginning work to cancel sectarianism in
parliamentary representation, the three executives [the prime
minister, the president, and speaker of the Chamber of
Deputies], the ministries, and class A jobs. the majority
required for approving the plan will be two thirds of the
members of the Chamber of Deputies.
c. If the plan is
not approved, the vote required for its approval will become 55
percent beginning with the second half of the term of the second
elected Chamber of Deputies.
d. If the plan is
not approved the cancellation of sectarianism in parliamentary
representation, in the presidencies, the ministries, the class A
job or those equivalent, during the first half of the term of
the third elected Chamber of Deputies, will be decided legally.
Chapter III: The
Rules of the Transitional Stage.
transitional stage, and in order to establish sound balance in
jurisdictions between the legislative and executive powers, along
with guaranteeing the independence of the judicial system under
the canopy of the democratic, parliamentary, republican system,
the following rules will be adopted and the constitutional or
organizational laws and articles will be issued, amended, or
suspended in accordance with the principles that would guarantee
In the executive
I. The President of
1. the election of
the President: After reforming the conditions of the legislative
power in accordance with the principles that will follow, the
majority required for electing the President of the Republic will
be 55 percent of the legal number of the Chamber of Deputies in
session that will follow the first session. The legal quorum for
conducting elections in all sessions will be seven-tenths of the
number of members of the Chamber of Deputies.
The power of the
President of the Republic:
A. the President of
the Republic is considered the head of state and symbol of the
country's unity. He is responsible for respecting the constitution
and for safeguarding Lebanon's independence, unity, territorial
integrity, and national unity. The President of the Republic shall
take a constitutional oath.
B. The President of
the Republic is considered the supreme commander of the Army.
C. The President of
the Republic signs all decrees and issues laws within limited
periods after approval by the competent authorities. He also
transfers draft laws to the legislative power. He also has the
right to oppose [laws], in accordance with the principles stated
in this document, within the periods defined in it. During the
forty day period, the President of the Republic shall also issue
all the laws of a top-priority nature that the Council of
Ministers transfers to the Chamber of Deputies.
D. the President of
The Republic names the prime minister and issues decrees forming
the cabinet in accordance with the provisions of Article 5 of this
chapter. He will also issue decisions considering the cabinet as
resigned in case enunciated in this document. Until legislative
power is formed by increasing the number of deputies in accordance
with this agreement, the government will be formed in accordance
with the requirements of reconciliation and in a way conducive to
implementing this program.
E. The President of
the Republic presides over and participates in discussions-with no
voting power during the meetings of the following:
- The Supreme
- The Council of
Ministers in limited cases pertaining to approving the policy
statement that defines the policy of the government; declaring
a state of peace or war, general mobilization, or a state of
emergency; Dissolving the Chamber of Deputies; and approving
the constitutional draft law, election law, and general
- The President of
the Republic can call the cabinet into emergency session in
certain cases when the country is seriously threatened.
- The President of
the Republic can call the cabinet into session once a month at
most in order to discuss draft laws that he may have turned
down, provided the agenda of such session does not include any
F. The President
receives credentials, receives diplomatic representatives, and
presides over official receptions.
G. The President
grants state medals.
H. The President is
not held responsible for the consequences of his exercising his
powers except in cases which the constitution terms as high
I. the President
grants special reprieves and proposes and issues general amnesty
J. The President
issues decrees accepting the resignation of any of the cabinet
ministers after the agreement by the Prime Minister. He can ask
any minister to resign after the agreement by the cabinet.
K. Whenever the
need arises, the President can address messages to the Chamber of
Deputies and ministers if he deems it necessary.
L. The President
chooses the employees of the presidency from among the employees
of the state administration.
II. The Council of
1. T Council of
Ministers is composed of its chairman, a number of ministers of
state, and ministers with ministerial portfolios. The necessary
quorum for a cabinet meeting is two-thirds of its members.
2. The executive
power will be prerogative of the Council of Ministers, which
exercises all executive and administrative powers and draws up the
state's general policy in its capacity as the body solely
responsible to the legislative power and the people. These powers
A. Drawing up the
state's general policy in the political, economic, defensive,
financial, developmental, educational, and social fields as well
in other areas.
B. Drawing up draft
laws and decrees, making the necessary decisions to implement
state policy, and assigning top-priority precedence to draft laws
whenever it deems this necessary.
implementation of laws and regulations and monitoring the
performance of all state organs and establishments, including the
D. Enacting and
canceling the state of emergency as well as war, general
mobilization, and international treaties and agreements, taking
into consideration the prerogatives of the legislative power.
E. Directing and
coordinating the work of the ministries and al state
administrations and general establishments.
F. Drawing up the
state budget bill and laying down comprehensive and long-term
G. Dissolving the
Chamber of Deputies by a justified decision and calling the
Chamber of Deputies into extraordinary sessions.
H. Appointing class
A employees or their equals and asking them to resign or accepting
their resignation in accordance with legal practice.
Council is made up of the prime minister and the government's
ministers and makes its decisions on a consensus basis. In case of
dispute, the issue will be presented to the Council of Ministers
to make the appropriate decision. This Council's duties are:
- To continue
efforts to achieve the required reform in all areas.
- To continue
efforts to implement the plan to end the war within the period
defined for it.
- To continue
efforts to secure transitional conditions for implementation
of the new constitution.
- To propose the
broad lines of state policy and to define its basic options to
be presented to the Council of Ministers.
- To prepare for
and present to the Council of Ministers plans, trends, and
- To approve all
decrees that do not need a decision from the Council of
Ministers including relieving one or more ministers of their
- The members of
the Ministerial Conical are considered members of the Supreme
- The General
Secretariat of the Council of Ministers comprises a number of
assistant secretaries general, councilors, and specialized
persons who from a special organ for the Council of
Ministers-and organ which is linked to the prime minister and
which carries out any work demanded by the Council of
IV. The Prime
- The prime
minister resides over the Council of Ministers meetings in all
cases except in other cases mentioned elsewhere in this
document. He also conducts sessions, proposes agendas, and
participates in discussions when he has the right to vote.
- He presides over
meetings of the Ministerial Council in all cases.
- He accepts the
resignation of one or more ministers and refers the decree to
- He is the deputy
of the head of the Supreme Defense Council.
- He oversees
implementation of the Ministerial Council's recommendations
and decisions and the Council of Minister's decisions and
follow up the work of the ministries and departments.
V. The Formation
and Resignation of the Government and the Time Limit for issuing
laws and decrees:
- The government
is formed in accordance of the following procedures:
A. The President holds mandatory parliamentary and political
consultations and, in light of them, issues a decree naming
the prime minister-designate
B. Following parliamentary and political consultations, the
prime minister designate forms the government and presents a
list of the government members to the President. If he agrees,
he issues decrees.
C. If the President refrains from signing the decree within
two weeks after receiving the list, the prime minister
designate will submit is case to the parliament. If his view
point wins 55 percent of the parliament members' votes, the
President should issue the decree. If the parliament does not
approve the government, the prime minister will be considered
as relieved of his post and consultation will be renewed.
D. If the prime minister refrains from presenting the list of
the government members to the President within one month
following his designation, he will be considered incapable of
forming the government. In this case, consultations will be
- Following this
agreement the government will be formed and the prime minister
and ministers will be named in accordance with he requirements
of the accord in order to implement this program. This will
continue until the legislative power is reformed by increasing
the number of parliament members in accordance with this
- The government
should win the parliament's confidence.
- All decrees and
draft laws will bare the signatures of the President, the
prime minister, the minister concerned, taking in account the
power of Ministerial Council, except in naming the prime
minister or accepting the cabinet's resignation or considering
the cabinet as having resigned in the following cases:
A. If the prime minister resigns.
B. If the Council withholds confidence.
C. If half of the cabinet members resign.
- A 30-day period
will be given for signing draft decrees and decrees of
transforming laws approved at the council by the President of
the Republic or turning these decrees down within this period
for justified reasons. This period will be effective from the
date of the draft decrees are submitted to the general
directorate of the presidency of the republic. When the period
ends without signing or turning down the draft decrees for
justified reasons, the decree will be effective by law. If he
turn it down, it will be resubmitted to the Council of
Ministers, and the Council of Ministers insists on its
decision, the President of the Republic then shall sign the
decree. These period will also be applied within periods
stated in Article 56 of the current Constitution.
In case of
differences, and if the prime minister and minister in charge of
the draft decree, the draft decree then will be transformed to the
Council of Ministers for settlement. The same period will be given
to the prime minister and the Ministerial Council as of submitting
the draft decrees for the general secretariat. However, laws
approved by the Chamber of Deputies will be applied within periods
stated in Article 56 of the current Constitution.
In the Legislative
- During the
transitional stage, popular representation will be expanded by
increasing the number of deputies to 198 in a manner that will
achieve the soundness and justice of this representation
within the framework of equal sharing between Muslims and
Christians and equality among the three greater sects in
accordance with the principles of this document until the
sectarianism in representation is canceled after the end of
the transitional stage.
- In order to
allow elections to be held, temporary appointment of deputies
shall take place to fill vacant seats, seats that may become
vacant, or those seats newly made by the Council of Ministers.
- The speaker of
the Chamber of Deputies, his deputy, and member of the Chamber
of Deputies will be elected for a 2-year term renewable.
- During the
transitional period, the government shall be granted
exceptional powers for legislation in all fields except the
state's general budget for one year renewable.
In Civil Service
- The rule of
sectarian representation shall be canceled in civil service
jobs, the judicial organ, and security and military
institutions. In order to guarantee just implementation of
this principle, the rights of wronged sects shall be settled
within a period of 6 months.
- Exception of
this cancellation are class A jobs or their equivalent in the
public and mixed administrations and institutions, independent
institutions, and the judicial organ. These jobs shall be
within the framework of equal sharing between Muslims and
Christians. In no way will this mean a monopoly of any job by
- During the
transitional stage, the government will supervise the
reforming and purging of the state's civil and military
institutions in accordance with he principles mentioned in
In the Supreme
- A Supreme
Council for trying presidents and ministers as stated in the
Constitution and a court to control the constitutional nature
of laws and to settle all conflicts resulting from
parliamentary and presidential elections shall be formed. The
president of the constitutional court shall be appointed in
accordance with the Council of Ministers proposal and approval
by the Chamber of Deputies.
In the Social and
- A Social and
Economic Council to represent economic, social, trade unions,
and scientific functionaries shall be established. The law
shall determine the fields of specialization of this council.
administrative system stated in Legislative Decree No. 116 dated
12 June 1959 to reinforce the administrative
decentralization shall be reexamined:
- By increasing
and redistributing governorates in a manner that will secure
citizens' interests and national cohesion.
- By strengthening
municipal councils and unions and governorates and expanding
- By adopting
popular representation in councils in the governorates.
- By transferring
most administrative responsibilities and duties from the
central authority to the local authority, thus facilitating
and speeding up services for the people.
- By reforming the
judiciary in order to ensure direct services to disputant
Note: The prerogatives of the establishments mentioned in this agreement,
in accordance with the new Constitution, will be confined to economic
and development as follows:
- Laying down a
policy of economic rehabilitation and reconstruction and
comprehensive development which will be defined in a
coordinated, clear program and which will be supervised mainly
by the state. This will require a speedy reform of its
administration, and enhancement of its performance, and the
forming of specialized administrations or expansion of
existing ones. The provisions of this program aim at
revitalizing the various sectors of national economy on the
basis of integration and harmony, taking into consideration
the need to preserve natural and environmental wealth,
provided this is based on the principle of free economy.
- Devoting special
attention to areas that were affected by war and to those
areas that have been deprived for decades. A development plan
should be drawn up for these areas so that the best possible
income and wealth can be distributed among citizens and areas
so that fair, integrated developmental equilibrium can be
realized for the homeland.
- Working to
realize comprehensive social justice through financial,
economic, and social reforms; adopting the five-year plan in
economic and financial planning of the budget; and completing
the stages of generalizing the social security system,
including security for the aged and ensuring free medical care
for all citizens.
private property and individual enterprise, which must not
harm public interest. This requires reforming taxation laws,
monitoring their application, protecting the rights of the
treasury, and supporting the structure of the public sector.
- Drawing up a
comprehensive housing program, giving first preference to
displaced persons and those who were harmed by the war, and
encouraging cooperative societies.
- Drawing up a
comprehensive program to utilize water resources and
implementing projects that meet this desire, particularly the
Al-Litani river project.
education and learning in the service of building the future
Lebanon on national, nonsectarian basis and utilizing
education in a way that will lead to spreading it and making
it general, free, and compulsory; developing educational
programs; and unifying educational curricula, particularly
books on history and social upbringing.
formal education on all levels and stressing the national role
of the University of Lebanon by giving it the necessary and
sufficient backing, particularly in the technical colleges, in
order to allow it to play its role in uniting the Lebanese
society and making room for all the Lebanese people to acquire
the necessary level of education to promote their economic,
social, and cultural development.
- Stressing the
role of technical and vocational education by giving it first
preference and linking it to the comprehensive construction
process in Lebanon.
- Preserving the
system private education.
scientific research by providing the necessary assistance for
public establishments in this field.
issue of nationality:
- Enacting a new
law of nationality and settling outstanding issues that are
being discussed. Special courts will be formed to look into
problems of nationality for one year.
- Canceling the
mention of religion on identity cards.
In the Military and
1. The Army:
basic task is to protect the nation from any foreign aggression,
particularly Israeli aggression against Lebanon. the Army's most
important role in this regard is resisting the Israeli occupation
of Lebanese territory. As for reconstructing the Army, this will
be effected in accordance with a nationalist, ideological creed to
whose principles all Army personnel will be committed and which
will be based on the principals that defines Lebanon identity and
affiliation with its Arab surroundings. The Army's structure will
be in harmony with Lebanon's pursuit of strategic coordination and
integration with Syria.
In accordance with
this concept, the following principles will be adhered to:
A. The duties of
the Army are defined within the Supreme Defense Council in
accordance with the defense law.
B. In order to rehabilitate the Army, it is to be withdrawn to its
camps in accordance with a comprehensive security plan to be
approved by the national unity government, which will demand
Syria's help during the rehabilitation in the following fields:
training courses, exchange of expertise and information, and
C. The national unity government will make decisions and measures
to work out programs for rebuilding and rehabilitating the Army in
accordance with the principles in this document, including the
drafting of a new defense law.
D. The army will be kept way from internal and political
E. The compulsory military service law will be implemented
F. Army intelligence work is restricted to military and tactical
2. The Internal
duty of maintaining security in Lebanese territory is entrusted to
the internal security forces. These forces will be reinforced in
equipment and numbers and their central organs and regional units
Will be reorganized as quickly as possible. This requires
recruitment sot hat the forces can be used effectively to protect
the citizens' security in all Lebanese area. Organs for collecting
information will also be reinforced.
3. The Public
security should be strengthened so that it can carry out the basic
duty represented in controlling the international border in
addition to its other duties stipulated in the laws and
regulations that govern its work such as issuing passports and
taking care of foreign nationals. This requires units to protect
land and sea borders as well as ports and airports except the
border with Israel, which is the duty of the Army.
Chapter IV: The
Distinguished Relations Between Lebanon and Syria:
prominent meaning in Lebanon's Arabism in its distinguished
relationship with Syria and its inevitable, fateful link to Syria.
Proceeding from its principle, relations should be based on a
strategic integration concept between Lebanon and Syria because
their fateful issues are one as a result of their affiliation,
history, and geography, a fact that requires a high decree of
coordination in various fields. We believe that Lebanon's
distinguished relations with Syria should be genuine so that every
understanding between the two countries can be included in
clear cut bilateral agreements which will be translated into
legal frameworks in both countries in order to prevent any
political party from tampering with these firm principles. Thus,
relations will not remain at the mercy of whims, interests, and
regional and international factors.
"integration" in this agreement means the following:
The potentialities and capabilities of each country should
complement the potentialities and capabilities of the in
order to reinforce each country's situation and achieve their
joint interests, on the condition that this would be defined and
interpreted within the framework of the bilateral agreements
mentioned in this agreement.
The areas of the distinguished relations between the two countries
are wide and diversified.
1. In the field of
Complete and firm coordination should cover all Arab,
regional, and international issues on the condition that the two
countries agree on the requirements of this coordination, one
after another and in accordance with proposed issues and subjects,
so that they can take positions on them. In this regard, direct,
guaranteed, and secret means of communications should be provided
for senior officials in charge of foreign policy in both
2. In the field of military relations:
The fateful struggle which Syria is waging in its
efforts to establish a strategic parity with Israel as a result of
well known Arab circumstances, such as the exclusion of Egypt from
the arena of struggle and the emergence of Arab-Palestinian axis
with the aim of confusing Syria politically, military, and in the
field of security, makes it incumbent on Lebanon not to allow
itself to be the gateway through which Israel can deal any blow to
or threaten Syria. Therefore, the agreement must be reached to
allow stationing of Syria military units in specific points in
Lebanon that will be defined by joint military committees in
accordance with the requirements of the Syrian and Lebanese
strategic security until such time as the Lebanese Army is rebuild
and rehabilitated in accordance with a national, militant ideology
that will differentiate between the genuine friend and the true
enemy and which will be in harmony with Lebanon's affiliation and
national options. When such an army, which will have defensive
tasks against the enemy, is completely build, it will take its
real, strategic role in the strategic balance in the region
through its role on Lebanese soil.
3. In the field of
The saying that Lebanon's security is part of Syria's
security and that Syria's security is part of Lebanon's security
is correct. It should be implemented on the ground through
Lebanese-Syrian security integration that will be expressed in the
A. Joint definition
of the main threats that endanger the security, independence, and
system of government in both countries.
B. Unified view toward such primary threats and hence, an
agreement on deep-rooted remedies for such threats that will
commensurate with sovereignty of both countries and which will
realize their cherished goal. These remedies will be administered
by the competent local organs of both countries.
C. Agreements should be approved to ensue coordination among
security organs, each in accordance with its interest in both
countries and in the two countries' interests.
4. In the field of
Coordination and integration will be maximized in
this field despite the different systems of government. As for the
organizing of this coordination, it will be defined by an expert
committee from both countries that will supervise proposing of
bilateral agreements and laws implementing them.
5. In the field of
Coordination in the field of education is the pillar
of entrenching kinship between the future generations of both
countries through national upbringing based on Arab affiliation
and the correct practice of this affiliation. This coordination
will be effected through joint committees that will draw up
nationalist, integrated educational basis. Within the framework,
and in accordance with the principles of educational reform in
Lebanon, the freedom of education will be preserved, taking
special care to prevent this freedom from becoming a new seed of
division among Lebanese people or creating hostility toward the
Arabs and Syria.
6. In the field of
Ensuring the continuation of the special relations
without sabotage is represented in preventing any
Lebanese-generated media attacks against such relations. This
requires that the Lebanese media be on high level of national and
pan-Arab responsibility and adhere to the principles and aims
enunciated in the national policy that is agreed and approved
constitutionally and legally, taking into consideration the
respect of the freedom of opinion and expression.
7. The practical
Upon beginning of the transitional phase of the
national solution project, the new government will form a
ministerial committee that will supervise the provisions of this
chapter and put it into practice.
Chapter V: The
Mechanism of Ending the War.
phase of ending the war in Lebanon will be limited to one year
beginning with the date the new government is formed. During this
year, all constitutional and legal texts pertaining to
implementing the transitional reforms of this document will be
approved and implemented. The mechanism of ending the war is based
on the following principles and rules:
cease-fire with Syria's help, opening the roads and crossing
points, and stopping supplies of weapons and ammunition by land,
sea, and air.
the role of the security committee and expending the area of its
jurisdiction to include all Lebanese territory. Representatives of
the internal security forces and Syrian officers will be included
in the committee. Accordingly, Syrian forces will be stationed in
agreed upon points, which will lead to extending moral support and
military backing t the internal security forces during the phase
to end the war in accordance with a comprehensive security plan
which national unity government will approve.
the internal security forces and general security, opening the
door to recruitment, and entrusting the internal security forces
with a task of safeguarding security in all Lebanese areas in
order to spread the state's authority in these areas without
4. Liquidating the
militias and military and paramilitary organizations in their
various forms and working to delete their elements in the country
and in the nation's institutions.
weapons, with the state to buy them from both the Lebanese and
6. Ensuring freedom
of movement for Lebanese citizens and guaranteeing their work and
residence in all parts of Lebanon.
7. Finding a
deep-rooted solution for the problem of the displaced Lebanese
persons; recognizing the right of each displaced Lebanese person
since 1975 to return to its land, house, and work; enacting the
necessary laws that guarantee this right; and ensuring the
necessary means to begin rebuilding. the return of displaced
persons will begin within three months of the formation of the new
government. This will gradually continue in light of the available
security requirements and will completely end within three years.
Dated 28 December,
Copied from The LEBANESE FORCES Official Website